How people traveled hundreds of years ago.

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The Industrial Revolution and the development of transportation dramatically increased the popularity of travel. The first steam locomotive in history appeared in 1804, and in 1825 a public railroad from Darlington to Stockton was opened.

Sea travel was not new to Europeans. The whole question was the massiveness of such voyages. The very fact of a voyage by sea could already be recreation and adventure, all the more so as the steamships eventually became real floating mansions.

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At all times travel was a dangerous undertaking. Horses could be carried and thrown off, the ship sank, and pedestrians and riders on the great road were awaited by throngs of robbers. A long march seemed suicidal. In some regions of medieval Europe, the family of a wanderer who did not return after 2 years was considered orphaned, and his wife could remarry.

A century later, as the situation of robbery and legislation began to be regulated, new fears arose. Along with the development of transportation came the age of catastrophes. In the nineteenth century alone, when trains were counted, a dozen accidents occurred. Water transport was little safer. Even greater danger was posed by airships, in the fall of which there was almost no chance of survival.

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Still, people took to the road. The so-called grand tour for upper-class young men, which Stern ridiculed in his Sentimental Journey, came into vogue precisely in the eighteenth century and could take several years. The itinerary of any traveler was about the same, no matter where he was coming from. The young man had to visit France and Italy, visit Britain and see London (unless, of course, it was his homeland). If desired, the tourist could look into Spain and go to the Holy Land (the territory of modern Israel and Palestine). Later similar tours began to extend to people with a more modest pedigree.

The oldest cause of travel is pilgrimage. In the Middle Ages, going to holy places was the only reason to go outside one's own village and the only (probably weak) amulet for travelers on the road: to offend pilgrims was considered a great sin.

Luggage was a major headache for the nineteenth-century tourist. It was much easier for peasant pilgrims or traders. They were hardly bound by fashion and etiquette, which was not the case for the noble townspeople. Until the middle of the 19th century things were most often transported in trunks. This tradition was eradicated by the personal packer of Empress Eugenie, wife of Napoleon III, Louis Viton, by making a suitcase that was much lighter and just as capacious. After that, most tourists switched to suitcases, and companies began to produce more affordable analogues.

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